Which of the following was an independent center of plant domestication?

Which of the following was an independent center of plant domestication?

a. North America

b. Australia

c. Europe

d. Hawaii

Caral in the Andean region and Eridu in Mesopotamia are both probable examples of _____________ .

a. densely populated cities without agriculture

b. the early importance of cult/pilgrimage centers during archaic state development

c. colonies founded by traders

d. cities sacked during warfare

Which of the following is a trait found in nearly ALL archaic states discussed in this course?

a. early writing first occurs on public monuments glorifying leaders

b. maritime trade

c. cities

d. longhouses

The most common organizational form of archaic states during initial state formation around the globe

is a(n) _________________________.

a. territorial state

b. city-state

c. empire

d. nation state

The earliest cities in Mesopotamia date to the ___________ period.

a. Halaf

b. Natufian

c. Akkadian

d. Uruk

Most early writing in ________________ is on stone monuments devoted to the glorification of leaders

and recording their histories.

a. Mesopotamia

b. Mesoamerica

c. ancient China

d. the Mississippi Valley

The control of cult centers by the Inkan empire is an example of the importance of __________ power.

a. geographic

b. ideological

c. agricultural

d. hydraulic

Which of the following statements about archaic states is true?

a. Archaic states were stable political formations that usually lasted for 1000s of years.

b. All archaic states used hieroglyphic writing systems to glorify leaders.

c. Periods of political consolidation were often followed by the collapse of archaic state polities.

d. All archaic states formed in areas where riverine irrigation was necessary for agriculture.

Animal bones covered in writing found at Anyang were used for:

a. prophecy and communicating with the dead

b. recording business transactions

c. public displays in temple plazas

d. sending messages to Mesopotamia

Banderkeramik long houses in Europe are markers of:

a. interaction with Mesopotamian populations

b. the prosperity of farmers

c. iron smelting

d. socioeconomic units composed of multiple smaller households

Uruk period states in Mesopotamia and Tiwanaku and Wari states in the Andes both utilized

__________ to exert control over trade.

a. written accounting on clay tablets

b. colonies

c. ocean-going ships

d. b and c

The control of __________________ was important in the development of an archaic state centered at

Great Zimbabwe.

a. trade of ivory and metals

b. irrigation networks

c. a large army

d. a pilgrimage center on the Zambezi River

The geographic location of the earliest cities of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties:

a. provided an ideal spot for maize agriculture.

b. enabled control over trade between highland/lowland areas.

c. was ideal for rice agriculture.

d. enabled control over oceanic trade.

Bronze objects produced by specialists associated with leaders in ancient Chinese states were primarily


a. for digging irrigation canals and sewing clothing.

b. as feasting vessels and weapons.

c. to communicate with the dead.

d. as money.

__________________ at the late Neolithic Chinese site of Taosi is/are evidence for pre-state social


a. Giant carved stone heads

b. Shell from the Indian Ocean

c. Massive bronzesmithing workshops

d. Elaborate burials

Robert Carneiro’s warfare model of state formation proposes that archaic states arose through violent

competition over:

a. cult centers

b. limited agricultural land

c. mineral sources

d. trade routes

____________ and ____________ are some of the most widespread elements of ancient Mesoamerican


a. Temple/pyramid complexes, sacrificial rituals

b. Writing on clay tablets, maize agriculture

c. Ball courts, sheep herding

d. Ball courts, oracle bones

Some archaeologists argue the Olmec were the “Mother Culture” of Mesoamerican societies because:

a. they conquered Mayan kingdoms.

b. some of the widespread iconography and religious practices in Mesoamerica originate in the Olmec


c. they controlled obsidian trade in the region.

d. they arose out of a migration of farmers bringing maize from the Andean region.