Discuss the concept of race and subspecies. What is clinal variation (ecoclines) and what does that have to do with variation in skin color.

1. Discuss the concept of race and subspecies. What is clinal variation (ecoclines) and what does that have to do with variation in skin color. What is the adaptive significance of the extreme range of variation in human skin color?

2. Discuss the history of the species Homo erectus. Include in your answer the people involved in discovering these fossils, the names given to them over time, the major fossil sites, and cultural evidence.

3. Discuss the origins of anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Be sure to include in your answer theories of how and when they dispersed out of Africa. Also discuss their relationship to Neanderthals and Devisovans.

4. The elaboration of culture is the adaptation which allowed hominins to survive. Discuss the evidence for increasing cultural elaboration in the genus Homo. Be sure to include evidence from tools made in stone, bone, and wood. Also discuss the origins of the: use of fire, cannibalism/ritual behaviors, burials, clothing, shelters, etc.

5. Discuss the fossil record for human evolution in Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia from 1.8 mya to 27,000 years ago. Include in your answer any change in the cultural traditions that occurred in this region during this time span.

6. The time period between 3.0-2.0 my is significant in the evolution of hominins. Discuss the climatic, cultural, and fossil evidence known for this time range. Be sure to include discussion of any hominin lineages that appear or disappear at this time.