Control of __________ was a major source of power for the Teotihuacn state. trade with the Mississippi Valley b. the cult center at Tula c. the…

Control of __________ was a major source of power for the Teotihuacán state.

a. trade with the Mississippi Valley

b. the cult center at Tula

c. the Pachuca obsidian source

d. bronze vessel production

Some of the strongest evidence for the importance of Teotihuacán in ancient Mesoamerica comes


a. monumental stone heads

b. accounts of Spanish explorers who visited Teotihuacán at the height of its power

c. writing on stelae in the Maya area

d. elaborate writing on the walls of Teotihuacán tombs

The lack of depiction of individual leaders at Teotihuacán has been argued to be evidence that state

power was:

a. limited only to the city itself

b. corporate-based

c. network-based

d. short-lived

The lack of _______________ has been cited as one of the most important differences between

Mesopotamian and Mesoamerican archaic states.

a. writing in Mesoamerica

b. gold in the Mesopotamia

c. a diverse set of large domesticated animals in Mesoamerica

d. divine kings in Mesopotamia

The Andean site of Caral is considered exceptional because of:

a. llama herding and access to the Amazon Basin

b. preceramic monument construction

c. a reliance on maritime food resources

d. b and c

The emergence of the Moche state is marked by the expansion of political control ______________.

a. across multiple coastal valleys

b. from the highlands to the coast

c. from the highlands to the rainforest

d. prior to the beginnings of agriculture

Which of the following was NOT an important part of Andean statecraft?

a. trade between different ecological zones

b. warfare

c. trade with Mesoamerica

d. control of pilgrimage centers

If you placed these three regions in order from earliest to latest based on when states first appeared in

each area, a correct sequence would include:

a. Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, China

b. China, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica

c. Mesopotamia, China, Mesoamerica

d. Mesopotamia, Andes, China

Paintings on Moche vessels best fit the expectations of ____________ model of state formation.

a. Childe’s Urban Revolution

b. Carneiro’s warfare

c. Wittfogel’s irrigation

d. the trade

Which of the following statements is true?

a. Most of the independent centers of state formation were also in or near independent centers of


of plants and animals.

b. State-level political organization was only invented once in world history in ancient China and then

spread to the rest of the globe.

c. State formation did not occur in the Americas prior to colonization by Europeans in the A.D. 1500s.

d. No states were present anywhere in the world prior to 1000 B.C.

Which of the following is NOT a necessary trait used to identify ancient cities?

a. large population

b. internal spatial differentiation

c. city-hinterland interdependency

d. irrigation

Archaeological cases in North America suggest large communal projects such as the construction of

earthen mounds can occur:

a. without states

b. before agriculture develops

c. only after sedentary villages are established

d. a and b

Among the Preclassic Hohokam, evidence for _______________ is common.

a. long distance trade with the Northwest Coast of North America

b. economic specialization

c. divine kingship

d. ritual use of wheat-based beverages

Cahokia has all of the following characteristics of state organization except:

a. a large population

b. a multi-tier settlement hierarchy

c. evidence for writing

d. evidence for control of large labor pools

____________ and ______________ are indicative of social complexity at Poverty Point in Louisiana.

a. Ballcourts, extensive trade networks

b. Elaborate burials, oceangoing canoes

c. Large mounds, extensive trade networks

d. Writing, tell construction

The Hohokam case raises questions about simple models of the origins of social inequality because the

strongest evidence for leadership in the region dates to:

a. when the irrigation networks reached their maximum extent.

b. when economic specialization was most widespread.

c. after the regional economic system decreased in size and complexity.

d. the period before agriculture was adopted.

____________ is the international organization that has had the most influence protecting

archaeological sites and prohibiting artifact trafficking.

a. The World Bank


c. Interpol

d. The International Monetary Fund

Most archaeological work in the United States today occurs because of the:

a. research interests of archaeologists at universities

b. need to comply with the National Historic Preservation Act

c. need for museum exhibits

d. desire to locate lost treasure

Which of the following is the largest employer of archaeologists in the United States?

a. the state of California

b. universities

c. museums

d. private consulting companies

Preservation-oriented archaeologists attempt to:

a. never excavate sites

b. minimize the physical impact of their research on archaeological sites

c. only excavate sites that will be developed for tourism

d. hide their findings from the public

According to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of

1990, Federal agencies and museums receiving Federal funds MUST:

a. inventory holdings of Native American human remains and funerary objects and provide written

summaries of other cultural items

b. consult with Indian Tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations to attempt to reach agreements

on the repatriation or other disposition of Native remains and objects

c. allow Native American lineal descendants, affiliated Indian Tribes, or affiliated Native

Hawaiian organizations to make the final determination about the disposition of cultural items

(such as reburial, long-term curation, etc.) once lineal descent or cultural affiliation has been


d. all of the above

Archaeological evidence indicates that hunter-gatherer societies categorically lack specialized

craft production: