100 words each question with references

1)According to Jim Cummins, social language (BICS) takes 1-3 years while academic language (CALPS) is more difficult and takes 5-8 years to develop. How can teachers help English Language Learners develop academic language?


2)What are some of the greatest barriers preventing our schools from meeting the educational goals for ELL students today? What recommendations are offered in your readings that address those barriers? Who do you see as potential change agents for implementing those recommendations?